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Understanding Git Branches

This tutorial is an introduction to Git Branches, it is dedicated to Kenth Hagström who submitted a request throw our Request a Tutorial page for GIT branching and team development. For readers, we assume you have already read and understand our first tutorial for Introduction to Git commands and Version control system. This is the second tutorial of the Git commands series.

 

Introduction to Git Branch

Git branch is a general branch management tool from Git, it lets you create, list, rename and delete branches. There is no storage and memory overhead issue when you making many branches so it is easier to logically divide up your work than have big bulky branches. Now let’s dig into the Git Branches commands.

 

Git Branch

Prior to creating a new branch it is advisable to view all branches you have. You can view all branches by simply typing following command:

$ git branch

 

Git-branch

When you initialize your repository/working directory with command git init git automatically creates one default branch named master.

Now lets assume you want to add a new image to your working directory (or you want to fix a bug in your project/working directory or something else, we will use adding image to project/working directory in our tutorial) and you want to do that in separate branch, later want to merge it with master branch. Let create separate branch for adding new image, we will named it addnewimage with following command.

$ git branch addnewimage

 

Git-Add-branch-3

 

Switching between branches

After creating new branch you need to move or switch into that new branch to perform git actions like add/commit same as you do into your master branch, you can switch with following command:

$ git checkout addnewimage

 

For above command addnewimage is our newly created branch.

 

Git-add-branch-2

 

Git Add/Commit to New Branch

Assume you have now copy the image file into your working directory/project now lets add and commit that file to our new branch where we just moved. If you now use command

$ git status

You will notice that the pointer (*/star) is now moved to our newly created branch. Pointer always shows you in which branch you working.

 

You can simply use git add and git commit command which you already used in master branch. To understand those all basic command you need to read our pervious tutorial Introduction to Git commands and Version control system please refer to that tutorial before moving further here.

 

git-branch-with-explanation-4

 

In above Git bash image I have draw pointers and explained at each and every point in red font.

 

Git Merge

Most of the Git command users stuck at this point. Git merge is very simple and easy to understand it works like it named merge means combine, it only used with branches. When you happy with your new branch’s committed changes you can merge it with the master branch. To merge the new branch you first need to move back to master.

$ git checkout master

now merge our new branch named addnewimage with following command,

$ git merge addnewimage

 

git-merge-branch-5

 

After merging new branch if you wish to delete you can simply use following command:

$ git branch –d addnewimage

You can now pull and push all your changes from/to remote repo to update your new branch changes which you just merged into master branch. It will shows you in you github repository.

githubcommit-last

you can see myimage.jpg which is pushed to my remote repo from my local repository via git push command.

 

Conclusion

In short branches are to work separately from your master branch, to avoid damage to your current repository/project, also with the beauty of branch many developers can work together in different branches for different points/bugs and later can merge each and every resolved bugs/new changes to master branch.

Hence branch especially says I want to include the work of this commits and all parents commits to master.

Enjoy Git.

Hardik Joshi

Hardik Joshi is Founder, Developer and Writer at eCodezone.com, He loves to write usable code for the Web and other digital sources.

  • Great article, not as hard as I thought it would be. I’ve previously only been using the github desktop application for git. But now I actually know a little more about how things function, I had to try the commands out myself a few times before I got the hang of it though.

    Thanks!

    • Git commands are very easy to use and understand, Let me know if you still need any assistant with git. I am more than happy to help.

      Cheers!

  • Gabriel Ghita

    Git tutorial for beginners with binary files in examples, not with text files!?
    Be serious!